• Table: Data arranged in tabular form
  • Key: set the Relationship between tables (Relationship)
  • Indexing: A mechanism to speed up data retrieval
  • A table consists of several fields and rows (also called records)

Early programming: turning a series of computer switches on and off, wiring electrical wiring, and installing perforated paper bags

How computers work: convert all kinds of information in the real world into binary code (information encoding) and store it in the computer’s memory (data storage). The processing of data by a computer under the control of a program (data computation). In storage, data is transferred from one unit to another (data transmission), processed, and then converted into a form of information that humans can understand (data decoding). The encoding and decoding of information, the location of data storage, and the determination of data calculation are all controlled and managed by computer identifiable machine commands (instruction systems). So what a computer is: a binary symbol processing machine controlled by a program. The most basic operations of computer hardware: computation, storage, and transmission